NOTES

Notes:

1. Samuel Butler, Unconscious Memory (London: David Bogue, 1880), reprinted as vol. 6 of The Shrewsbury Edition of the Works of Samuel Butler (London: Jonathan Cape, 1924), 13, 15.

2. Butler, Unconscious Memory, 13.

3. Freeman J. Dyson, Origins of Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 8-9.

4. Freeman J. Dyson, "A Model for the Origin of Life," Journal of Molecular Evolution 18 (1982): 344.

5. Dyson, Origins of Life, 5.

6. Julian Bigelow, "Computer Development at the Institute for Advanced Study," in Nicholas Metropolis, J. Howlett, and Gian-Carlo Rota, eds., A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century (New York: Academic Press, 1980), 308.

7. Konstantin S. Merezhkovsky, Theory of two Plasms as the Basis of Symbiogenesis, A New Study on the Origin of Organisms (in Russian; Kazan, 1909); Boris M. Kozo-Polyansky, A New Principle of Biology: Essay on the Theory of Symbiogenesis (in Russian; Moscow, 1924). The theory is most accessible in English in Liya N. Khakhina's Concepts of Symbiogenesis: A Historical and Critical Study of the Research of Russian Botanists (in Russian; Moscow, 1979) translated by Stephanie Merkel and edited by Lynn Margulis and Mark McMenamin (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

8. Merezhkovsky, Theory of two Plasms as the Basis of Symbiogenesis, 8; after Khakina, Concepts of Symbiogenesis, ii.

9. Edmund B. Wilson, The Cell in Development and Heredity, 3d ed. (New York: Macmillan, 1925), 738.

10. Nils A. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part I," Acta Biotheoretica, 16 (1962): 94.

11. Nils A. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part II," Acta Biotheoretica, 16 (1962): 122.

12. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part I," 70.

13. James Pomerene, interview by Nancy Stern, 26 September 1980, OH 31, Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

14. Nils A. Barricelli, "Symbiogenetic Evolution Processes Realized by Artificial Methods," Methodos 9, nos. 35-36 (1957): 152.

15. Nils A. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part I," 72.

16. Barricelli, "Symbiogenetic Evolution Processes Realized by Artificial Methods," 169.

17. Barricelli, "Symbiogenetic Evolution Processes Realized by Artificial Methods," 164.

18. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part I," 70.

19. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part I," 76.

20. Nils A. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories," Journal of Statistical Computation and Simulation 1 (1972): 123-124.

21. Nils Barricelli, "The Intelligence Mechanisms behind Biological Evolution," Scientia 98 (September 1963): 178-179.

22. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part I," 94.

23. Barricelli, "Symbiogenetic Evolution Processes Realized by Artificial Methods," 159.

24. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part I," 89.

25. Ibid., 69, 99.

26. Ibid., 94.

27. Ibid., 73.

28. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part II," 100.

29. Ibid., 116.

30. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories," (1972), 122.

31. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part II," 100.

32. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories," (1972), 126.

33. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part II," 117.

34. G. Cairns-Smith, Seven Clues to the Origin of Life (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1985), 106.

35. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories: Part II," 101.

36. John Backus, "Programming in America in the 1950sQSome Personal Impressions," in Metropolis, Howlett, and Rota, eds., A History of Computing in the Twentieth Century, 127.

37. Data in this paragraph are from Montgomery Phister, Jr., Data Processing Technology and Economics, second edition (Bedford, MA: Digital Press, 1979), 19, 26, 27, 215, 277, 531, 611.

38. Nils A. Barricelli, "The Functioning of Intelligence Mechanisms Directing Biologic Evolution," in Theoretic Papers 3, no. 7 (1985): 126.

39. Barricelli, "Symbiogenetic Evolution Processes Realized by Artificial Methods," 147.

40. Barricelli, "Numerical Testing of Evolution Theories," (1972) 126.

41. Nils Barricelli, "Genetic Language, its Origins and Evolution," Theoretic Papers 4, no. 6 (1986): 106-107.

42. Nils A. Barricelli, "On the Origin and Evolution of the Genetic Code, II: Origin of the Genetic Code as a Primordial Collector Language; The Pairing-Release Hypothesis," BioSystems 11 (1979): 19, 21.